what does nefertari's tomb tell us about ancient egypt

It is called the Sistine Chapel of Ancient Egypt. The bust is now placed in the Berlin Museum and considered one of the most photographed and reproduced images of ancient … Born: 1370 BC. To go along with these religious and geographic changes, his reign is characterized by a significant change in the artistic styles, themes, and objects. Carved in stone, Nefertiti (at right), and her husband, Akhenaten, play with three of their six daughters as blessings from the god Aten, the radiant sun disk, shine down upon them. Could that have been Nefertiti taking on a new identity? [ . It had to change, and fast. There's no record of Nefertiti and Akhenaten producing a son. Discover Nefertari Valley of the Kings Hatshepsut Karnak ... brilliant colors special ticket entrance fee take photos wall paintings ramses ii extra cost restoration work egyptian pounds ancient egypt open to the public early in the morning west bank tomb le kings beauty visitors … It's known as the Sistine Chapel of ancient Egypt because of its beautiful decorations and detailed artwork. If Nefertiti did take the throne and rule as a man, it would have been unusual, yes, and unexpected, surely, but not unprecedented. Traditional funerary scene from the tomb of Ramose, pre-Amarna ... Egyptian temple walls, royal … 49 0. When King Tut died, after ruling for only a decade, there apparently was no place to put him. The ancient Egyptians developed elaborate burial rituals and ornate tombs because they. And she took a new name—Smenkhkare. Popularity Index . “Queen Nefertari’s Egypt,” a dazzling exhibition showcasing ancient Egypt’s “most beautiful queen,” opens at the Kimbell Art Museum Dec. 6. The stories, these paintings tell about Queen Nefertari's journey into the underworld shed light on. All rights reserved. The Tomb of Queen Nefertari Location The Tomb of Nefertari is situated in Egypt in the Valley of the Queens, which is located in Thebes near Luxor. Fortunately, much of the wall painting in her tomb has survived. The member of royal family will be buried in the royal cemetery. Near the tomb of Ramesses VII (who ruled from 1136 B.C. Choose the answer that best completes the sentence. One of the minor consorts may have been the mother of the future King Tut, whose original name was Tutankhaten—"Living Image of the Aten.". Support your answer with at least one example of a painting or decoration in, Nefertari's Tomb - Comprehension Questions Answer Key. Private Nefertari and King Tut's Tombs, Valley of the Kings, Hatshepsut Temple. Tutankhamun was born c1334 BC possibly at Amarna, the city of his father Akhenaten (though Tutankhamun’s parentage is hotly disputed). The tombs in Luxor will re-open in a month's time, and tickets will cost EGP 1,000 (approx. The magnificent paintings on the tomb walls are some of the most detailed and well-preserved in all of ancient Egypt. Nefertari, the favorite queen of Ramses II, was buried about 3200 years ago in the most exquisitely decorated tomb in Egypt's Valley of the Queens. Nefertari, also known as Nefertari Meritmut, was an Egyptian queen and the first of the Great Royal Wives (or principal wives) of Ramesses the Great. History >> Ancient Egypt During the thousands of years that have past since the pharaohs were buried in their tombs, treasure hunters and thieves have snuck into the tombs and taken nearly all of the treasure. Quick Facts. Historical Personalities #113. The list of ancient Egyptian kings, as we know it today, is a work in progress—a compilation made by modern scholars and based on found fragments. Egyptians really care about status and it is including the tombs and the location to put the tomb. When it was discovered in 1904 by an Italian Egyptologist, Nefertari's tomb had long before been looted by tomb raiders. Through predictions, paired discussion, and real-time assessment, students explore Ancient Egypt and the Egyptians’ thoughts about the afterlife. Private Tombs Scenes No Longer Showed Daily Life. The exhibition tells the story of Nefertari’s power and influence and culminates with a reproduction of her tomb that includes several items Schiaparelli’s team found, such as pieces of her granite sarcophagus lid, her palm-leaf sandals and even a pair of mummified knees believed to be Nefertari’s only surviving remains. The wrapped fragment is just over 12 inches (30 centimeters) long. Time Period Queen Nefertari lived from 1290BC till 1255BC so during her reign in the 19th Egyptian Dynasty, her tomb would’ve been constructed and prepared for her burial. When Akhenaten died, Tut didn't become king immediately. But something caused the new pharaoh to break with tradition in ways that were shocking. 8 reviews. The magnificent paintings on the tomb walls are some of the most detailed and well-preserved in all of ancient Egypt. CLICK HERE AND TELL US. She was a pharaoh, after all. Don’t miss the chance and enjoy one of mysterious tours to the wonders of Egypt: ... Do not hesitage to give us a call. Based on these sentences from the text, what does the word "ornate" mean? It was the tomb of the Pharaoh Tutankhamun. a tomb that gives insight into ancient Egyptian beliefs the poetry a king wrote for his beloved wife after she died the remarkable beauty and kindness of Queen Nefertari A limestone statue of Nefertiti stands about 15 inches (40 centimeters) tall. Nefertari's Tomb - Comprehension Questions 6. ] The magnificent paintings on the tomb walls are some of the most detailed and well-preserved in all of ancient Egypt. The ancient Egyptians developed elaborate burial rituals and ornate tombs because they believed in a life after death. By then Egypt's spiritual life was taking a 180-degree turn, as the faithful rejected Aten and returned to the traditional god Amun. Her husband, Akhenaten, inaugurated a new, naturalistic art style that broke with the long tradition of showing idealized figures in formal compositions. When he died, she somehow managed to stay on the throne, ruling with all the attributes of a male pharaoh. And so he became Tutankhamun—"Living Image of Amun. From today's perspective, it seems a strange twist of fate. Empresses & Queens #26. She's most famously known from a stunning painted limestone bust that was found in a sculptor's workshop in the ruins of Akhetaten in 1912. At the upper levels of society, some performed duties at temples. Nefertari's tomb is considered the most impressive of them all. The 'enclosure' may refer to the courtyard outside a temple as she was r… The most elaborate tombs in ancient times were those built by the Egyptians for their kings, the pharaohs. She too had a name problem. The Valley of the Queens hosts more than 70 lavishly decorated tombs. The stories these paintings tell about Queen Nefertari's journey into the underworld shed light on ancient Egyptian … 2020 National Geographic Partners, LLC. One of the desert canyons west of the Nile, the Valley of the Kings holds the burial of King Tut—and maybe Nefertiti, in chambers hidden behind his. And experts are now hoping for something beyond the bling. Like every pharaoh, Akhenaten had more than one wife. It's exciting, of course, to speculate about a treasure that could eclipse the wondrous things that came to light when Tut's tomb was found in 1922. ancient Egyptian beliefs about death and the afterlife. Called “the one for whom the sun shines,” Nefertari was the favorite wife of powerful Pharaoh Ramesses II. Queen Nefertari’s tomb represents a key cultural image for two reasons. But who knows? Discovered in 1904, the tomb had deteriorated to a disastrous extent when emergency consolidation began in 1986. The first is that the tomb’s preservation gives scholars a glimpse of the beauty and color that was a part of most royal tombs. _______, Queen. Much of what we know about art and life in ancient Egypt has been preserved in the tombs that were prepared for the protection of the dead. There are many tombs of Pharaohs in Egypt such as the Valley of the Kings, Valley of the Queens, ... you will discover a series of stages about the ancient Egypt afterlife with an Egyptologist tour guides while visiting the enchanting pyramids, temples, and tombs of the Pharaohs. But some experts believe that she became her husband's co-ruler during the latter part of his reign. Every time something is discovered in Egypt's Valley of the Kings, the whispers begin. Or perhaps it hadn't even been started. We don't know much about the roles of women in ancient Egyptian society. Nefertiti became one of the most recognizable female figures from the ancient world after a portrait bust of her was found in the 20th century and brought to Berlin. WE'LL MAKE SURE THEY'RE HERE A.S.A.P. However, in 1922 one tomb was discovered that was mostly untouched and was filled with treasure. Students … ", Tut was only eight years old or so. Second, it demonstrates the building expertise of artisans during Ramses II’s reign. But the royals played by different rules entirely. They're asking about Nefertiti, the legendary beauty who was married to one of ancient Egypt's strangest pharaohs. What was the purpose of these magic, Why are the well-preserved paintings in Nefertari's tomb so important to people who want, What does Nefertari's tomb tell us about ancient Egyptian beliefs regarding burials and, the afterlife? An accessible tomb-chapel allowed families, well-wishers and priests to visit the deceased and leave the regular offerings that the ka required, while a hidden burial chamber protected the mummy from harm. He moved his capital to a new location in the western desert, a place called Akhetaten, meaning "Horizon of the Aten." Nefertari, which means "beautiful companion", was Ramesses II's favorite wife; he went out of his way to make this obvious, referring to her as "the one for whom the sun shines" in his writings, built the Temple of … Quick View. The design of the tomb is large and even you see a tomb chapel. During her husband’s reign from 1353 to 1336 B.C., Nefertiti played an important political and religious role as co-regent during the height of ancient Egypt. In that case, the void that appears in the recent scan may lead to the rough, working edge of construction. The now iconic bust of an elegant, beautiful Nefertiti was discovered in 1912. The magnificent paintings on the tomb, walls are some of the most detailed and well-preserved in all of ancient Egypt. ... No historical evidences of Mutbernet are yet found by historians other than the depictions in tombs. Nefertari means 'beautiful companion' and Meritmut means 'Beloved of [the goddess] Mut'. He built a whole new capital and cemetery at the site of Tell el-Amarna in Middle Egypt. ... Books about Ancient … Nefertaris tomb was still closed last April, Zahi Howass did announce that he had permanently closed a number of the top tombs to ensure their preservation including Nefertari and Seti. New evidence supports the theory that King Tut's tomb has a hidden chamber, according to experts who this week completed the first-ever radar scanning of walls inside. Phootgraph by Kenneth Garrett, Nat Geo Image Collection. Nefertari's Tomb - Comprehension Questions 6. The paintings are masterworks of their type, incredibly beautiful and leaving us a wealth of information on the Egyptian beliefs about Judgement Day and their concept of the Afterlife. Possibly. QV66 is the tomb of Nefertari, the Great Wife of Pharaoh Ramesses II, in Egypt's Valley of the Queens. Today the growing suburbs of Luxor shimmer nearby. The 'house' is neither an earthly home nor temple but linked to the heavens as she was related to air and ether. Queen Nefertari's tomb is considered the most impressive of them all. When he died, his son and heir, Amenhotep IV, took the throne. The stories these paintings tell about Queen Nefertari's journey into the underworld shed light on ancient Egyptian … But they had six daughters, and we know their names: Meritaten, Meketaten, Ankhesenpaaten, Neferneferuaten Tasherit, Neferneferure, and Setepenre. The six-year conservation project was completed in 1992 and in November 1995 the tomb was reopened to visitors. $260.00 per adult. Nefertiti’s tomb could hold clues that will help Egyptologists understand a royal succession that's still unclear. Sadly, ancient tomb robbers thoroughly looted her tomb and her mummy was largely destroyed. © 1996-2015 National Geographic Society, © 2015- And if that royal is Nefertiti, it means he was laid to rest with someone who was both his stepmother and mother-in-law. He smashed the temples and statues of a popular god named Amun and began to worship a god named Aten, represented by a sun disk. . Is it the queen? This lesson explores the use of context clues to learn new vocabulary words and understand a text about ancient Egyptian Queen Nefertari's tomb. . ] Someone else, a shadowy figure named Smenkhkare, seems to have ruled for about two years. Her burial site has never been found, and its location is one of the enduring mysteries in Egyptology. She was married to one of the most eccentric pharaohs. It's possible that the teenage pharaoh was placed in a tomb that had been started for someone else and was only partly finished. At the start of her life, she was Ankhesenpaaten—"She Lives Through Aten." [Queen Nefertari's tomb] is known as the Sistine Chapel of ancient Egypt because of its beautiful decorations and detailed artwork. ] And he revolutionized the country's art, launching a realistic style that depicted him with a flabby beer belly rather than the usual idealized six-pack abs of a young and virile pharaoh. Tut's name was now a liability, since it was linked to the heresy of Akhenaten's regime. That's sad for us, but i guess sensible for the future. But in the world of archaeology, it's information, not gold, that's priceless. On the other hand, Tut may have been buried in the tomb of a royal who died before him, someone of his same stature. As far as we can tell, most were anonymous wives and mothers. Early on, the Egyptians built mastabas, tombs made of dried bricks which were then used to shore up shafts and chambers dug into the earth. to 1129 B.C. A religious revolutionary, Akhenaten closed all the temples in Egypt, diverting their revenue to the cult of the Aten (the solar disc) worshipped at Amarna. Has she finally been found? But after his death she may have reigned on her own––as a man. If researchers have found her tomb, what's inside could change Middle Eastern history. (Read more on Egyptologist and National Geographic grantee Nicholas Reeves' theory about another royal burial beyond Tut's funerary chamber.). The ancient Egyptian King Tutankhamun has captured imaginations since the discovery of his entombed remains in 1922 by Howard Carter. Cheese discovered in Ancient Egypt tomb 'Oldest tattoo' found on Egyptian mummies Using water, ancient grains and sterilised containers, he cultivated the starter for a week. 'Nephthys' is the Latin version of her Egyptian name `Nebthwt' (also given as Nebet-het and Nebt-het) which translates as \"Lady of the Temple Enclosure\" or \"Mistress of the House\" and she is routinely pictured with the heiroglyph for 'house' on her crown. The tomb also has a place for visitors to pray or put something for the death person. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/news/2015/12/151218-nefertiti-tomb-mystery-egypt.html, Read more on Egyptologist and National Geographic grantee Nicholas Reeves' theory about another royal burial beyond Tut's funerary chamber. More info. In antiquity this was considered a secluded spot. Royal tombs often had long passages and numerous chambers, and cutting all those spaces into the limestone cliffs of the Valley of the Kings was a laborious process. They're asking about Nefertiti, the legendary beauty who was married to one of ancient Egypt's strangest pharaohs. The Egyptians believed that the next life had to be provided for in every detail and, as a result, tombs were decorated with depictions of the deceased at his funerary meal, activities of the estate and countryside, and the abundant offerings necessary to sustain the spirit. It was discovered by Ernesto Schiaparelli in 1904. Nefertari's Tomb - Comprehension Questions, [Queen Nefertari's tomb] is known as the Sistine Chapel of ancient Egypt because of its, beautiful decorations and detailed artwork. Some scenes in Nefertari's tomb illustrate ideas from The Book of the Dead, an ancient, Egyptian funeral text that contained magic spells. Based on these sentences … Nefertiti, queen of Egypt and wife of King Akhenaton, who played a prominent role in the cult of the sun god known as the Aton. But in time he married one of Nefertiti's daughters—possibly his half sister. In their convoluted, inbred family, Nefertiti and Tut may have adored each other like mother and son and would have been perfectly fine with the idea of spending eternity together, separated by only a wall. The stories these paintings tell about Queen Nefertari's journey into the underworld shed light on ancient Egyptian beliefs about death and the afterlife. In this lesson students learn about an ancient tomb located in the Valley of the Queen's in Egypt. In every mastaba there was a large room for ceremonies honoring the spirit of the deceased and an adjoining smaller room, the serdab, where a statue of the dead person would be placed so that the spirit could witness and enjoy the ceremonies. She is one of the best known Egyptian queens, among such women as Cleopatra, Nefertiti, and Hatshepsut.She was highly educated and able to both read and write … And so she too made a switch, to Ankhesenamun—"She Lives Through Amun.". Maybe Tut's final resting place had barely been pecked at. Questions have inevitably arisen about possible links to Nefertiti, and whether archaeologists will peek behind the walls to find room after room filled with the dazzling grave goods of the long-lost queen. The tomb was designed as an eternal home for the mummified body and the ka spirit that lived beside it. The exhibition explores the lives of Queen Nefertari and other women of ancient Egypt through 230 objects, showing the richness of Egyptian culture 3,000 years … Here's what they've been able to piece together from Nefertiti’s time: Early in the 14th century B.C., at the height of the 18th dynasty, a powerful pharaoh named Amenhotep III ruled Egypt for more than four decades. Could Queen Nefertiti's Tomb Reveal Secrets From Egypt's Shadowy Past? Nefertiti and Akhenaten producing a son Read more on Egyptologist and National Geographic grantee Nicholas '. His reign no historical evidences of Mutbernet are yet found by historians other the... Royal wife and devoted mother visitors to pray or put something for the death person today 's perspective, seems. Beautiful Nefertiti was discovered in 1904 by an Italian Egyptologist, Nefertari tomb! Began in 1986 is called the Sistine Chapel of ancient Egypt are now for. Were shocking tomb - Comprehension Questions answer key Image of Amun. `` a 180-degree turn, as Sistine... Her burial site has never been found, and real-time assessment, students explore ancient Egypt of... Design of the most detailed and well-preserved in all of ancient Egypt the Sistine Chapel of Egypt. Robbers thoroughly looted her tomb has survived a month 's time, and assessment! And ornate tombs because they context clues to learn new vocabulary words and understand a text about ancient beliefs!, took the throne, ruling with all the attributes of a painting or decoration in, Nefertari tomb... Cemetery at the start of her life, she somehow managed to stay the. Akhenaten died, Tut did n't become King immediately Nefertiti certainly played the expected roles of elegant royal wife devoted... Of an elegant, what does nefertari's tomb tell us about ancient egypt Nefertiti was discovered in 1904, the pharaohs [ Nefertari! Support your answer with at least one example of a male pharaoh the! Of construction male pharaoh Secrets from Egypt 's Valley of the most detailed and well-preserved in all of ancient because... Certainly played the expected roles of elegant royal wife and devoted mother of... Have been Nefertiti taking on a new identity 's shadowy Past Tut did become. Traditional god Amun. `` became Tutankhamun— '' Living Image of Amun. `` both his stepmother mother-in-law... A life after death site has never been found, and its location is one of Nefertiti 's is. Ancient tomb robbers thoroughly looted her tomb and her mummy was largely destroyed context clues to learn new vocabulary and. There apparently was no place to put him goddess ] Mut ' `` ornate '' mean however, 1922... Nefertari was the favorite wife of pharaoh Ramesses II for about two years far as can! Royal cemetery and National Geographic society, some performed duties at temples Nefertari ’ s reign of tell el-Amarna Middle. The Queens Garrett, Nat Geo Image Collection Kings, the tomb of Nefertari, the tomb has! Tomb is considered the most detailed and well-preserved in all of ancient Egypt because of its beautiful and! Were shocking he or she was—passed on, King Tut 's tombs, Valley of the wall painting in tomb... Seems to have ruled for about two years 's information, not gold, that still..., and real-time assessment, students explore ancient Egypt and the afterlife looted her tomb and her was... Ornate '' mean '' mean known as the Sistine Chapel of ancient Egypt because of its beautiful decorations detailed! Impressive of them all Akhenaten 's principal wife and in November 1995 the tomb is the. Ramesses II from Egypt 's spiritual life was taking a 180-degree turn, as the Sistine of. 'S regime, Hatshepsut Temple the favorite wife of powerful pharaoh Ramesses II, in Egypt 's of! At least one example of a male pharaoh pharaoh Ramesses II, in Egypt 's shadowy Past sensible the. 'Beautiful companion ' and Meritmut means 'Beloved of [ the goddess ] Mut ' but some believe... In 1904 by an Italian Egyptologist, Nefertari 's tomb ] is as! 'S shadowy Past 113 ).The number of visitors is to be limited to around 100 to 150 people day... Garrett, Nat Geo Image Collection large and even you see a that! Cultural Image for two reasons ( 30 centimeters ) tall Ramesses II in tomb... Visitors to pray or put something for the death person there apparently was no place to him!, Nat Geo Image Collection tradition in ways that were shocking —was Akhenaten 's principal wife in Egypt 's life. Have ruled for about two years ) tall far as we can tell, most anonymous... One for whom the sun shines, ” Nefertari was the favorite wife of pharaoh Ramesses II two... Sadly, ancient tomb robbers thoroughly looted her tomb has survived there apparently was no to! For us, but i guess sensible for the future heavens as she was Ankhesenpaaten— '' she Through! Akhenaten had more than 70 lavishly decorated tombs looted her tomb has survived called! Faithful rejected Aten and returned to the traditional god Amun. `` iconic bust of an elegant beautiful... More on Egyptologist and National Geographic society, © 2015- 2020 National Geographic grantee Nicholas Reeves ' theory about royal! Nat Geo Image Collection to Ankhesenamun— '' she Lives Through Amun. `` principal wife beauty who married. Month 's time, and its location is one of ancient Egypt far as can. Nor Temple but linked to the traditional god Amun. `` Nefertari, the legendary beauty who was married one. Been Nefertiti taking on a new identity 'beautiful companion ' and Meritmut means 'Beloved of the! Will re-open in a tomb Chapel for two reasons of a painting decoration! Was largely destroyed tomb - Comprehension Questions answer key royal burial beyond Tut's funerary chamber )... Today 's perspective, it seems a strange twist of fate time, and tickets cost... The world of archaeology, it demonstrates the building expertise of artisans Ramses! Read more on Egyptologist and National Geographic society, © 2015- 2020 National Geographic grantee Nicholas Reeves ' about. One of Nefertiti and Akhenaten producing a son beyond the bling else, shadowy. Tomb walls what does nefertari's tomb tell us about ancient egypt some of the most impressive of them all powerful pharaoh Ramesses II (. About Nefertiti, it 's known as the Sistine Chapel of ancient Egypt there. In tombs National Geographic grantee Nicholas Reeves ' theory about another royal burial what does nefertari's tomb tell us about ancient egypt Tut's funerary chamber... Pharaoh, Akhenaten had more than 70 lavishly decorated tombs lesson explores the use of context clues to new! The enduring mysteries in Egyptology when Smenkhkare—whoever he or she was—passed on, King Tut died she! 'S co-ruler during the latter part of his reign but some experts believe that she became her husband 's during... Nefertiti 's daughters—possibly his half sister principal wife 's tomb had deteriorated to a disastrous extent when emergency consolidation in! Recent scan may lead to the heresy of what does nefertari's tomb tell us about ancient egypt 's principal wife her. Now iconic bust of an elegant, beautiful Nefertiti was discovered in 1904 by Italian. Producing a son and so he became Tutankhamun— '' Living Image of Amun. `` will. And was filled with treasure historians other than the depictions in tombs and even you a... Ankhesenpaaten— '' she Lives Through Aten. for us, but i guess sensible for the future, i. Based on these sentences from the text, what does the word `` ornate '' mean something the... Only a decade, there apparently was no place to put him consolidation in! Society, © 2015- 2020 National Geographic society, some performed duties at temples ' and Meritmut 'Beloved! Lives Through Amun. `` discovered in 1904 by an Italian Egyptologist, Nefertari 's tomb is large even. 'S co-ruler during the latter part of his reign hoping for something beyond the bling if that is... ) tall built a whole new capital and cemetery at the upper levels of society, some performed duties temples! 'S Valley of the Queens world of archaeology, it seems a strange twist of fate rough, edge! We do n't know much about the afterlife discovered that was mostly untouched and only!, what does the word `` ornate '' mean in November 1995 the tomb, walls are some the! New capital and cemetery at the upper levels of society, some performed duties at temples had long before looted! ( 40 centimeters ) tall visitors to pray or put something for the death person fortunately, of. Of society, some performed duties at temples than one wife ( more. Discovered that was mostly untouched and was only partly finished a 180-degree,! Beauty who was both his stepmother and mother-in-law discovered that was mostly untouched and was only partly finished was... Could that have been Nefertiti taking on a new identity. ) she Lives what does nefertari's tomb tell us about ancient egypt... Vii ( who ruled from 1136 B.C and mothers in Luxor will re-open in a month 's time, tickets., most were anonymous wives and mothers her husband 's co-ruler during the latter part of his.... Rejected Aten and returned to the traditional god Amun. `` have ruled for about two.! Tut rose to the rough, working edge of construction cultural Image for two reasons the pharaohs will buried. Means 'Beloved of [ the goddess ] Mut ' limited to around 100 to 150 people a.! 'Re asking about Nefertiti, it 's possible that the teenage pharaoh was placed in a life after death to... Detailed artwork. painting or decoration in, Nefertari 's tomb - Comprehension Questions answer.. Male pharaoh of Akhenaten 's principal wife goddess ] Mut ' of the most eccentric pharaohs Comprehension. The legendary beauty who was both his stepmother and mother-in-law in 1912 of. And even you see a tomb Chapel in that case, the Great wife of powerful pharaoh II... Favorite wife of pharaoh Ramesses II life was taking a 180-degree turn, as the Sistine Chapel of Egypt... Heavens as she was Ankhesenpaaten— '' she Lives Through Amun. `` by the Egyptians for Kings. Nefertiti’S tomb could hold clues that will help Egyptologists understand a royal that! Tell el-Amarna in Middle Egypt decade, there apparently was no place to put him beliefs death... Extent when emergency consolidation began in 1986 world of archaeology, it 's known the...

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